Grand unification epoch
In physical cosmology, assuming that nature is described by a Grand unification theory, the grand unification epoch was the period in the evolution of the early universe following the Planck epoch, starting at about 10−43 seconds after the Big Bang, in which the temperature of the universe was comparable to the characteristic temperatures of grand unified theories.
If the grand unification energy is taken to be 1015 GeV, this corresponds to temperatures higher than 1027 K.
During this period, three of the four fundamental interactions—electromagnetism, the strong interaction, and the weak interaction—were unified as the electronuclear force.
Gravity had separated from the electronuclear force at the end of the Planck era (epoch).
During the grand unification epoch, physical characteristics such as mass, charge, flavour and colour charge were meaningless.
The grand unification epoch ended at approximately 10−36 seconds after the Big Bang. At this point several key events took place.
This phase transition is also thought to have triggered the process of cosmic inflation that dominated the development of the universe during the following inflationary epoch.
- The strong force separated from the other fundamental forces.
- The temperature fell below the threshold at which X and Y bosons could be created, and the remaining X and Y bosons decayed. It is possible that some part of this decay process violated the conservation of baryon number and gave rise to a small excess of matter over antimatter (see baryogenesis).
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W Z bosonit
The W and Z bosons (together known as the weak bosons or, less specifically, the intermediate vector bosons) are the elementary particles that mediate the weak interaction; their symbols are W+, W− and Z.
The W bosons have a positive and negative electric charge of 1 elementary charge respectively and are each other's antiparticles. The Z boson is electrically neutral and is its own antiparticle. All three of these particles are very short-lived with a half-life of about 3×10−25s. Their discovery was a major success for what is now called the Standard Model of particle physics.
X Y bosonit
In particle physics, the X and Y bosons (or sometimes collectively called just X bosons) are hypothetical elementary particles analogous to the W and Z bosons, but corresponding to a new type of force predicted by the Georgi–Glashow model, a grand unified theory.
In particle physics, the baryon number is an approximate conserved quantum number of a system.